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Alloxan & Streptozotozin



Alloxan and Streptozotocin Diabetes


The mechanisms underlying alloxan and streptozotocin diabetes are a major research topic of the Institute of Clinical Biochemistry of Hannover Medical School. The following publications have been published addressing this topic. Full texts of the publications can be downloaded via PubMed.

If not accessible reprints can be obtained as pdf files by sending an email to the following address:




1.      Lenzen, S, Tiedge, M, Panten, U: Glucokinase in pancreatic B-cells and its inhibition by alloxan. Acta Endocr (Kbh) 115, 21-29, 1987


2.      Lenzen, S, Brand, F-H, Panten, U: Structural requirements of alloxan and ninhydrin for glucokinase inhibition and of glucose for protection against inhibition. Br J Pharmacol 95, 851-859, 1988


3.      Lenzen, S, Freytag, S, Panten, U: Inhibition of glucokinase by alloxan through interaction with SH groups in the sugar binding site of the enzyme. Mol Pharmacol 34, 395-400, 1988


4.      Lenzen, S, Panten, U: Alloxan: history and mechanism of action. Diabetologia 31, 337-342, 1988 (Review)


5.      Lenzen, S, Freytag, S, Panten, U, Flatt, PR, Bailey, CJ: Alloxan and ninhydrin inhibition of hexokinase from pancreatic islets and tumoural insulin-secreting cells. Pharmacol Toxicol 66, 157-162, 1990


6.      Lenzen, S, Munday, R: Thiol-group reactivity, lipophilicity, and stability of alloxan, its reduction products and its N-methyl derivatives and a comparison with ninhydrin. Biochem Pharmacol 42, 1385-1391, 1991


7.      Lenzen, S, Mirzaie-Petri, M: Inhibition of glucokinase and hexokinase from pancreatic B-cells and liver by alloxan, alloxantin, dialuric acid, and t-butylhydroperoxide. Biomed Res 12, 297-307, 1991


8.      Lenzen, S, Mirzaie-Petri, M: Inhibition of aconitase by alloxan and the differential modes of protection of glucose, 3-O-methylglucose, and mannoheptulose. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 246, 532-536, 1992


9.      Lenzen, S, Münster, W, Brünig, H: Effects of alloxan and ninhydrin on mitochondrial Ca2+ transport. Mol Cell Biochem 118, 141-151, 1992


10.  Munday, R, Ludwig, K, Lenzen, S: The relationships between the physicochemical properties and the biological effects of alloxan and several N-alkyl substituted alloxan derivatives. J Endocr 139, 153-163, 1993


11.  Lenzen, S, Tiedge, M, Jörns, A, Munday, R: Alloxan derivatives as a tool for the elucidation of the mechanism of the diabetogenic action of alloxan. In: Lessons from Animal Diabetes, Vol 6, Shafrir, E (Ed). Birkhäuser, Boston, pp. 113-122, 1996  


12.  Jörns, A, Munday, R, Tiedge, M, Lenzen, S: Comparative toxicity of alloxan, N-alkylalloxans and ninhydrin to isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. J Endocr 155, 283-293, 1997


13.  Jörns, A, Munday, R, Tiedge, M, Lenzen, S: Effect of superoxide dismutase, catalase, chelating agents and free radical scavengers on the toxicity of alloxan to isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Free Rad Biol Med 26, 1300-1304, 1999


14.  Tiedge, M, Elsner, M, McClenaghan, NH, Hedrich, H-J, Grube, D, Klempnauer, J, Lenzen, S: Engineering of a glucose-responsive cell for insulin replacement therapy of experimental insulin-dependent diabetes. Human Gene Ther 11, 403-414, 2000


15.  Tiedge, M, Richter, T, Lenzen, S: Importance of cysteine residues for the stability and catalytic activity of human pancreatic beta cell glucokinase. Arch Biochem Biophys 375, 251-60, 2000


16.  Elsner, M, Guldbakke, B, Tiedge, M, Munday, R, Lenzen, S: Relative importance of transport and alkylation for pancreatic beta cell toxicity of streptozotocin. Diabetologia 43, 1528-33, 2000


17.  Elsner, M, Tiedge, M, Guldbakke, B, Munday, R, Lenzen, S: Importance of the GLUT2 glucose transporter for pancreatic beta cell toxicity of alloxan. Diabetologia 45, 1542-1549, 2002


18.  Elsner, M, Tiedge, M, Lenzen, S: Mechanism underlying resistance of human pancreatic beta cells against toxicity of streptozotocin and alloxan. Diabetologia, 46, 1713-1714, 2003


19.  Elsner, M, Gurgul-Convey, E, Lenzen, S: Relative importance of cellular uptake and reactive oxygen species for the toxicity of alloxan and dialuric acid to insulin-producing cells. Free Radic Biol Med 41, 825-834, 2006


20.  Lenzen, S: Alloxan and streptozotocin diabetes. In: Peschke E (ed) Endocrinology III lectures within the “time structures of endocrine systems” project framework. [Endokrinologie III Vorträge im Rahmen des Projektes "Zeitstrukturen endokriner Systeme“.] Abhandlung der Sächs. Akad. Wiss., Math-naturwiss Klasse, Verlag der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Leipzig, commissioned by S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart/Leipzig, pp 119-138, 2007 (Review)


21.  Elsner, M, Gurgul-Convey, E, Lenzen, S: Relation between triketone structure, generation of reactive oxygen species and selective toxicity of the diabetogenic agent alloxan. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 10, 691-699, 2008


22.  Lenzen, S: The mechanisms of alloxan and streptozotocin diabetes. Diabetologia, 51, 216-226, 2008 (Review)